Oxford Pageant of Victory
Place: University Football Ground, Iffley Road (Oxford) (Oxford, Oxfordshire, England)
Number of performances: 8
26 June–3 July 1919
Name of pageant master and other named staff
- Mistress of the Pageant [Pageant Master]: Bergerac, Bernice de
- Stage Director: Ben Greet
- Stage Managers: Horace Sequeira, George A. Brandham
- Business Manager: Frank S. Justins
- Marshals: Mr Armstrong, Mr Chas. A. Green, Mr Hedges, Mrs Stevens
- Chorus Master: Mr Charles Child
Names of executive committee or equivalent
- Prince of Wales
- Professor Oman, MP
- Chairman: The Sheriff of Oxford (Coun. F.F. Vincent)
- Chairman of Executive Committee: His Grace the Duke of Marlborough (Lord Lieutenant)
- Hon. Organising Secretary: Mrs Whitmarsh
- Hon. Treasurer: W. Cockell, Esq.
- Hon. Secretary: Mrs Agnes Montagu Burrows
- Hon. Assistant Secretary: F.N.A. Vincent, Esq.
- Chairman The Duke of Marlborough
- Vice-Chairman The Sheriff of Oxford (Coun. F.F. Vincent)
- Hon. Secretary: Miss de Brisay
- 29 members, 14 certainly female
- Chairman: Claude Rippon, Esq.
- Hon. Secretary: Mrs Agnes M. Burrows
- 9 members, 2 certainly female
- Chairman: J.R. Benson
- Hon. Secretary: A.H. Montgomery, Esq.
- 8 members, all apparently male
Press and Advertisement Committee:
- Chairman B.H. Blackwell
- Hon. Secretary: J. Colegrove
- 8 members, 1 female
- Chairman J. Hastings, Esq.
- 5 members, 2 female
- Chairman P.Linaker, Esq.
- 10 members, 7 definitely female
Names of script-writer(s) and other credited author(s)
- Bergerac, Bernice de
- Dryden, John
- Binyon, Laurence
- Shakespeare, William
- Spenser, Edmund
- Petrarch, Francesco
- Tennyson, Alfred Lord
- Rawnsley, F.A.
- Burrows, Ione
- Prelude: Extract of poems by Dryden and Laurence Binyon ‘Now let us sing, won is the day’.
- Episode III: From Shakespeare, Henry V.
- Episode V: Edmund Spenser’s translation of Petrarch’s sonnet ‘The heavenly branches did I see arise’.
- Episode VII: The dialogue in the Arthurian scene comes from Tennyson’s Idylls of the King.
- Episode VIII: The British Isles and the Dominions by F.A. Rawnsley and Ione Burrows.
Names of composers
- Purcell, Henry
- Williams, Ralph Vaughan
- Elgar, Edward
Numbers of performers2000
Object of any funds raised
In aid of the Radcliffe Infirmary, St Dunstan’s Hostel, the League of Mercy, and the Regimental Fund of the Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry.
Linked occasionCelebration of peace, 1919. The Pageant also happened to begin on the day of the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
- Grandstand: Yes
- Grandstand capacity: n/a
- Total audience: n/a
Prices of admission and seats: highest–lowest
PART I. The Allies
Prelude. The Procession of Praise
Arranged by Miss de Brisay. The prelude features a chorus and three actors representing St George, The Victor and ‘The Fairest Isle’. The children of ‘the city’ [Oxford] strew bay leaves ahead of the Victor as he approaches, and the chorus sings an old Welsh air, ‘Ymadawiad y Brenin’. The stars—played by children representing the signs of the zodiac—circle around the Fairest Isle, and the chorus sings Purcell’s arrangement of Dryden’s words, ‘Fairest isle, all isles excelling’. St George then speaks the prologue to the pageant: a mixture of triumph and sorrow (‘Too many hearts that mourn the fallen brave./Why weep for those beyond the veil? They share/To-day our happy pride in knightly deeds.’) The chorus leaves the stage singing ‘England My Country’.
I. Belgium. The Joyous Entry into Bruges, 1429
Led by the YMCA, Mrs Betts and Mr Gibbs.
This episode shows the marriage of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to Isabella of Portugal, the grand-daughter of John of Gaunt. There is an apparently large cast of ‘Archbishop, Priests, Knights of the Golden Fleece, Aldermen, Councillors, Lords and Ladies, City-Guard, Garland-Bearers, Bowmen, etc.’ Philip makes a speech welcoming Isabella, who thanks him. Philip announces that he has founded an order of knights—the Golden Fleece. Isabella predicts ‘a king so brave, so true and great,/That all shall honour him. For he alone/Shall stand with sword uplifted ’gainst the horde/Of armèd might, and hold the Liège way/Till others come prepared to fight for Right.’ Flowers are strewn, and the Burgomaster gives Isabella a crossbow. She shoots at the Popinjay, on a tall pole, and the Popinjay falls. (According to the notes, this is considered a good omen for the future welfare of Bruges).
II. Serbia. A Village Spinning Meeting, Songs and Dances [no date]
Leader: Mrs Rose.
There is no spoken dialogue in the episode. Serbian students in Oxford, and others, dance the ‘Kokonjeske’ and ‘Vranjanka’. The latter is choral. The girls in the scene sing the ‘Spinning Song’ (in Serbian with translation in Book of Words).
III. France. The Betrothal of Henry V with the Princess Katharine, 1420
Leaders: Rev. W.G. and Mrs Lloyd. Words from Shakespeare, Henry V.
This episode ‘marks the first great alliance between France and England’. Henry enters on horseback with great fanfare. He asks Katharine to marry him, and she accepts, having been told that it will please her father. (She speaks, it appears, in a French accent.) Her father Charles also gives his assent and hopes for peace between England and France.
IV. Japan. A Spring Festival [no date]
Leader: Miss Gee.
Apparently around 700 children take part in this scene. There is no dialogue. Some of the children perform a dance inspired by the ‘famous Cherry-Blossom Dance, which can only be seen to perfection in Japan itself’. The episode depicts a Japanese gala day, when crowds go into the country to see the cherry blossom.
V. Italy. The Crown of Song, 1341
Leaders: The Misses Eales.
Petrarch approaches Rome, accompanied by a procession. Maidens do a ‘spring dance’ in his honour. He recites one of his sonnets (15 lines, in fact), in a translation by Spenser: ‘The heavenly branches did I see arise…’. He is then taken to Orso, Count of Anguillara and chief senator of Rome and by King Robert of Sicily, who conducts a ‘a viva voce examination that lasted two-and-a-half days’, a possible reference to Oxford Schools. The ‘half mythical, wholly fascinating’ Laura is there to witness it. The notes to this episode admit that Laura may not have existed, but that ‘in a pageant one may venture perhaps to stretch a point’. An ecclesiastical procession passes, chanting ‘Ave Maris Stella’. A priest blesses the laurel wreath on Petrarch’s head, and a service of thanksgiving is held at St Peter’s.
VI. America. The Old Country and the New, 1496 [and 1917]
Leaders: Miss Drew, assisted by Lady Camoys and Miss Margaret Mason.
The chorus sings ‘Bobby Shafto’. This episode depicts John Cabot and his three sons setting sail for America in 1496. John’s wife, ‘Mistress Cabot’, urges their son Sebastian not to go, but he tells her that he must and asks her to think of their safe return with many treasures. Husband and wife take their farewell of each other. The Bishop of Bath and Wells gives Cabot two flags—the British flag and a ‘Flag of Good Fortune’, representing the star-spangled banner. The Bishop blesses their voyage, and ‘Bobby Shafto’ is sung again. ‘Centuries elapse’, and the scene shifts to 1917. The ‘Spirit of Freedom’ appears and praises, in verse, the New World and the alliance of Britain and America. The US army enters the scene, cheered by the people of London. The army sings (tune not given) along with the Star-Spangled Banner and perform a military review:
We come, the Atlantic Armada,
Our place in grim warfare to hold,
We sang our way over the Ocean
Like Mayflower Pilgrims of old.
Young acorns from oak-trees of England,
In American soil we were grown,
Till we stretch, an impassable forest,
To the steps of the Mother-land’s throne.
We come in our millions on millions,
With war-ships, with craft of the air,
And bring you the best of our manhood,
The stress of the conflict to share;
We thank you, good kinsfolk of Britain;
Your welcome, full-handed we take,
Our compact is ‘Vanquish the foeman’,
For the lands of the free are at stake.
We come! We come! We come!
The army is played by real officers and men: an inset in the Book of Words lists them.
VII. Interlude. The Banbury Revels, Illustrating a Country Holiday of the Time of Queen Elizabeth
Leader: Dr Ellis.
There are two May queens and the ‘Lady on the White Horse’. The Lady is welcome by the crowd, and children on hobby-horses sing ‘Ride a Cock Horse’. There is dancing around the maypole, in Elizabethan costume, and the Lady thanks the crowd for their welcome along with country dancing and games by spectators in the costumes of the period until the Lady leaves ‘back to Nursery-Rhyme-Land, that dear country of youth and jollity, “where the brooks of morning run.”’
PART II. The British Empire
Prelude. The Golden Car of Phoebus
Leader: Miss Muriel Lane.
There is, apparently, no dialogue in this scene. The Book of Words reads:
The sun never sets upon the British Empire, and to typify this the resplendent Car of Phoebus, mighty Sun-Lord, now appears. It is surrounded by frolicking children, who represent the dancing sunbeams that bring light and life to the world. It bursts through the gates of the East, while fair Nature, clothed in green, invites the presence of the Sun, to call forth her flowers and ripen her fruits. Every part of Britain’s vast domain rejoices in his radiant and life-giving presence.
VIII. The British Isles and Dominions Overseas
This is in fact a pageant-within-a-pageant. Not all the episodes have dialogue. England is played by Miss Madeleine Whitelock: She is ‘a symbolic figure in white, crowned with oak leaves’. This episode begins with her entry, surrounded by ‘Coastwise Lights’, plated by six women. And ‘to typify the encircling sea, Father Neptune makes obeisance before her, and lays his Trident at her feet.’
(a) The Coming of Arthur: First Ideals of Chivalry
This features Arthur and Guinevere. Arthur welcomes the knights to his court and gives them the Code of Chivalry; the words are from Tennyson’s Idylls of the King. The knights respond. St George then leads a procession to the throne of England. (This appears to be on a rostrum or dais, on which the other countries’ leaders also end up sitting.)
(b) Scottish Episode, 1078
No dialogue. This features King Malcolm Canmore and his Queen Margaret ‘who by her benevolence and intense love of the beautiful did much to encourage the early art and industry of Scotland’. They and their entourage enter to pipe music, and the King and Queen feed a large crowd of beggars. St Andrew leads a procession to the dais.
(c) Irish Episode [no date]
No dialogue. This features St Patrick, King Conor, Princess Deirdre and a large group of fairies and gnomes. There is another procession to the dais, where they join the English and Scottish.
(d) Welsh Episode, Carnarvon, 1284
This scene features Edward I, Queen Eleanor and the Prince of Wales. The King enters a scene filled with an excited crowd. He addresses them, and tells them that he is giving them a prince. The crowd shouts ‘Long live the King!’ and ‘Give us a Prince of Wales!’ Edward announces ‘This Prince is of Royal blood, he was born in Wales, and doth not speak one word of English!’ The baby prince is presented, and the crowd shouts ‘Long live the Prince!’ [Presumably, they go to the dais too, but this is not explicitly mentioned.]
(e) Crusaders’ Episode, 1194
[Note that Bernice de Bergerac staged Glorious England: A Tale of the Crusades at the Sheldonian, 9 January 1918, from which this scene is likely to have re-used costumes].1
Richard I, Eleanor of Aquitaine and Archbishop Baldwin appear in this scene; again, there is a large crowd. Baldwin greets the King, who thanks him. An aged monk steps forward and makes a prediction:
The spirit of the prophets is upon me, and the Lord hath revealed to me what is to be … Unto your Majesty it is not given to hold that same land of Palestine, though ye have so gloriously wrenched it from the Infidel now, Many moons shall wax and wane, many seasons change, and centuries roll by, ere Christian hands shall once more raise the Cross above Jerusalem. But this shall be in seven hundred years from now, in a great Crusade, the mightiest the world has ever known. Hard shall be the fight and long, but the Lord shall give them Victory! … Quietly, and with all humility shall the conquerors enter Jerusalem, and claim it thus for God and Christ for evermore!
The monks leaves; the Te Deum is sung, and the procession salutes England. The crusaders leave, and SS George, Andrew and Patrick ride forward, dipping their standards towards England. England receives the salute and unfurls the Union flag.
Now groups enter, representing ‘The Dominions’. First, India is represented by ‘warriors, scholars and merchants’; the delegation offers gifts to those assembled on the dais. India is followed by Canada (including American Indians—Miss Evets sings ‘O Canada’), Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
Finale. Rally of War Workers
The pageant ends with a ‘Rally of War Workers’ [the Voluntary Aid detachment]. They enter in groups, with banners, and the audience joins the performers in singing ‘O God Our Help in Ages Past.’ Finally, ‘Land of Hope and Glory’ [not, it appears, the national anthem] is sung.
Key historical figures mentioned
- George [St George] (d. c.303?) patron saint of England
- Philip the Good (1396-1467) Duke of Burgundy and Philip III
- Isabella of Portugal (1503-1539)
- John [John of Lancaster], duke of Bedford (1389–1435) regent of France and prince
- Charles VI (14368-1422) king of France
- Henry V (1386–1422) king of England and lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine
- Beauchamp, Richard, thirteenth earl of Warwick (1382–1439) magnate
- Humphrey [Humfrey or Humphrey of Lancaster], duke of Gloucester [called Good Duke Humphrey] (1390–1447) prince, soldier, and literary patron
- Orso, Count of Anguillara (???-c.1366) chief senator of Rome
- Petrarch, Francesco (1304-1374) Italian scholar and poet
- Cabot, John [Zuan Caboto] (c.1451–1498) navigator
- Arthur (supp. fl. in or before 6th cent.) legendary warrior and supposed king of Britain
- Malcolm III [Mael Coluim Ceann Mór, Malcolm Canmore] (d. 1093) king of Scots
- Margaret [St Margaret] (d. 1093) queen of Scots, consort of Malcolm III
- Andrew [St Andrew] (fl. 1st cent.) apostle and patron saint of Scotland
- Patrick [St Patrick, Pádraig] (fl. 5th cent.) patron saint of Ireland
- Íte ingen Chinn Fhalad [M' Íte; Deirdre; Ita] (d. 570/77) Irish saint
- Edward I (1239–1307) king of England and lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine
- Eleanor [Eleanor of Castile] (1241–1290) queen of England, consort of Edward I
- Edward II [Edward of Caernarfon] (1284–1327) king of England and lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine
- Richard I [called Richard Coeur de Lion, Richard the Lionheart] (1157–1199) king of England, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou
- Eleanor [Eleanor of Aquitaine], suo jure duchess of Aquitaine (c.1122–1204) queen of France, consort of Louis VII, and queen of England, consort of Henry II
- Baldwin [Baldwin of Forde] (c.1125–1190) archbishop of Canterbury
- David [St David, Dewi] (d. 589/601) patron saint of Wales and founder of St David's
Band of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, directed by Bandmaster Smith.
Choir directed by Mr Charles Child, Chorus Master.
Choruses performed by the West Oxford Choral Society.
- Henry Purcell, setting of ‘Fairest Isle’ by John Dryden (Prelude).
- ‘Fairest Isle’, ‘Now Let us sing’ (Prelude), and ‘Bobby Shafto’ (Episode VI) from the Motherland Song Book, arranged by R. Vaughan Williams.
- ‘O God Our Help in Ages Past’, Isaac Watts’ setting of Psalm 90, music by William Croft (Episode VIII).
- ‘Land of Hope and Glory’, music by Sir Edward Elgar, words A.C. Benson (Episode VIII).
Newspaper coverage of pageant
Hull Daily Mail
Oxford Journal Illustrated
Book of words
- de Bergerac, Bernice. The Oxford Pageant of Victory 1919. Oxford, 1919.
- Foreword by J.A.R. Marriott, MP.
- Introduction and historical notes by Sheila E. Braine.
- Includes ‘The British Isles and the Dominions’ by F.A. Rawnsley and Ione Burrows.
Other primary published materials
References in secondary literature
- Chapman, Don. Oxford Playhouse: High and Low Drama in a University City. Hertford, 2009. At 28 mentions the pageant in passing.
- Dobson, Michael. Shakespeare and Amateur Performance: A Cultural History. Cambridge, 2011. At 171 notes that the use of this particular speech from Henry V is in the manner of ‘late Victorian stage productions’.
Archival holdings connected to pageant
Sources used in preparation of pageant
- Shakespeare. Henry V. London, 1600.
- Tennyson. Idylls of the King. 1859-1885.
From the book of words and its references to several hundred participants in some scenes, this appears to have been a very large pageant, and was one of a number held in the aftermath of the First World War which bore testament to the conflict (see entries for Nottingham and Salisbury Peace Pageants). The foreword by the politician and historian J.A.R. Marriott, ‘Oxford and Its Pageant of Victory’, sets the scene to good effect. Marriott outlined the history of Oxford and emphasises that ‘Oxford … contains, and to the observing eye presents, a microcosm of English history’. In the urban landscape of Oxford, Marriott claimed, ‘the memorials of the past confront you; and not merely isolated memorials, but the materials for a consecutive study of the evolution of the nation, and indeed of the Empire’.2 In some respects, this echoes the repeated theme of pre-war pageants that through the history of a particular town, the history of the nation would reveal itself. The scenes reflected the long history of friendship between Britain/England and its allies, including Belgium, France and the USA. Historical parallels between distant and recent wars are drawn. Some allegiances are newer, for example with Japan, a sign of ‘the great forces which are operating in the new era of Welt-politik’. He also emphasises the long history of friendship with Italy. America is the most important, though, because British links with the USA are ‘ties of blood’, although the Anglo-Saxon relationship is also one founded on constitutional democracy.3
The pageant was naturally dedicated ‘to the valiant living, and the noble dead who fought, with a heroism beyond all praise for the great cause of freedom and right; and also to all those who laboured loyally in their several ways to bring about the peace of the world.’4 The Mayor of Oxford, Counsellor F. Vincent, noted in opening the pageant that ‘We cannot, nor would you wish that we should, commence our pageantry tonight without marking with especial emphasis on this day of days the victory our arms have won, ratified today by the signing of the terms of the Peace laid down by us and our Allies.’5
The pageant therefore emphasized the many links between the allied nations of the First World War, featuring performers from Serbia and the United States and celebrating a diversity of cultures—through, for example, inclusion of performances of a Serbian ‘Spinning Song’ and the Japanese Cherry-Blossom Dance. In discussing the latter, the Oxford Journal Illustrated advised viewers that the dance ‘can only be seen to perfection in Japan itself’, while at the same time noting that this was one of the most impressive scenes ‘by reason of the kaleidoscopic movements of the hundreds of gaily clad children taking part in [it].’6 Presumably, the Serbian ‘Spinning Song’ was viewed far less highly.
Sites of conflict (between England and France during the Hundred Years War and England and Wales during the reign of King Edward I) were suppressed in favour of dynastic celebrations. Thus the pageant featured the marriage of Phillip ‘the Good’ of Burgundy with Isabella of Portugal (who was then allied to Henry VI of England)7; Henry V’s marriage to Queen Isabel (confusingly ten years previously)8; Edward I’s presentation of his son as Prince of Wales; and Richard the Lion Heart’s return from the Crusades.9 The pageant’s portrayal of these events focused on the creation of unions after conflict, minimizing the role of violence. An uneducated reader, and all but the most discerning viewer, might not have guessed that these celebrations followed major wars and were symbols of peace between countries. Some of the scenes seem to have little to do with the rest of the pageant. Though Italy was an ally in the First World War, Episode V with Petrarch and Laura adds little. Episode VII, ‘The Banbury Revels’, likewise, had little to do with Oxford itself though they were popular with the crowd and in the newspaper reviews.
Though there is no direct link between Oxford and Cabot, the departure of Cabot and his sons at Bristol would clearly have resonated with an audience who had lost many sons, husbands, and fathers during the war. The return of the Spirit of Freedom and the American Army glosses over American secession from the empire, suggesting a familial tie represented by an Anglo-Saxon heritage and a belief in particular values of liberty and democracy:
We thank you, good kinsfolk of Britain;
Your welcome, full-handed we take,
Our compact is ‘Vanquish the foeman’,
For the lands of the free are at stake.10
The American soldiers were either stationed or studying at Oxford after the First World War (like Jay Gatsby in The Great Gatsby, 1925), though they are unidentified in the Book of Words and newspapers. The rally of War Workers at the end included girls from Didcot serving in the Army Ordinance Corps, Oxford Red Cross nurses, women of the Royal Flying Corps, railway workers, milk sellers, flag sellers and wartime organisations such as the Union Jack Club, St Dunstan’s Hostel, the Salvation Army, YMCA, YWCA, Girl Guides, Church Lads’ Brigades and Boy Scouts.11
The mystical monk in Episode VIII, who prophecies the completion of the conquest of the Holy Land 700 years later’,12 highlights a second theme of dominion, evidenced in the personification by Phoebus (the Greek Sun god) of ‘the empire on which the sun never sets’. This was one of the most moving parts of the pageant, for newspapers and for the audience. Phoebus, in a car, was played by a young girl carrying a white dove, which symbolized both the British Empire and peace. The authors of the episode were also celebrating General Allenby and the Egyptian Expeditionary Force driving the Ottoman Armies out of Palestine and Jerusalem in 1917, predicting that the British Mandate for Palestine, which came into force in 1920, would effectively lead to Palestine becoming a British colony.
Despite the notionally pacific message, the pageant was clear that England (occasionally referred to as Britain) was the centre of the Empire, to which all the dominions and nations, including Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, ought to submit. The Irish episode, introduced by ‘by fairies and gnomes, who dance to harp music’, glossed over the troubled place of Ireland within the imperial family. This episode featured King Conor (Conchobar mac Nessa) and the Knights of the Red Branch—a legendary part of Irish mythology, wholly associated with Ulster. It showed Fergus mac Róich, King of Ulster, being convinced by his wife (Conor’s mother) to let Conor rule for a year, in name only. Conor proves so good, however, that he goes on to usurp Fergus, fighting a number of bloody battles and eventually coming to terms with Fergus.13 This could be read as an oblique reference to Ireland’s troubles, suggesting its ultimate loyalty to England.
Though the pageant rarely alludes directly to war or loss (save in the US soldiers’ song), this is clearly an undertone of which the audience would have been directly aware. During the singing of the hymn ‘O God, Our Help in Ages Past’, the performers depart during the fifth verse:
Time, like an ever-rolling stream,
Bears all its sons away;
They fly forgotten, as a dream
Dies at the opening day.14
Bernice de Bergerac wrote and staged a number of pageants and amateur performances in Oxford including Glorious England (1922) and An Elizabethan Joyance (1928) and was producer of the film Oxford (1928). She also performed an earlier, small-scale Shakespeare Pageant at Wadham College in 1916 and the Ixworth Abbey Pageant in Suffolk in 1921.15 The Oxford Journal Illustrated noted ‘A Brilliant Artistic Success’, although it was unclear as to whether it would make a profit: ‘But from an artistic and picturesque point of view there is no doubt that the efforts of the promoters, organisers and workers have been entirely successful.’16 The pageant effectively blended together pacific themes, celebration of the contribution of various allies, and the civilising mission of a somewhat mystical British Empire. At the territorial height of the British Empire, so soon after the Great War and at the beginning of the long process of commemoration (before the unveiling of the Cenotaph and the institution of Remembrance Sunday), it marked an early moment in the historical memory of the ‘War to End all Wars’.
- ‘Pageant Play Produced at Oxford’, Daily Mirror, 10 January 1918, 5.
- The Oxford Pageant of Victory 1919 (Oxford, 1919), 7.
- Ibid., 10.
- ‘Oxford’s Victory Pageant: A Brilliant Artistic Success’, Oxford Journal Illustrated, 2 July 1919, 9.
- Ibid., 9.
- Ibid., 11.
- The Oxford Pageant of Victory 1919 (Oxford, 1919), 13
- The Oxford Pageant of Victory 1919 (Oxford, 1919), 21
- The Oxford Pageant of Victory 1919 (Oxford, 1919), 36
- The Oxford Pageant of Victory 1919 (Oxford, 1919), 32.
- ‘Oxford’s Victory Pageant: A Brilliant Artistic Success’, 11.
- The Oxford Pageant of Victory 1919 (Oxford, 1919), 38.
- Ériu, vol. II of The Tidings of Conchobar Son of Ness, ed. and trans. by Whitley Stokes (London, 1908).
- The Oxford Pageant of Victory, 36.
- ‘Serbian Princess Opens Shakespeare Pageant’, Daily Mirror, 25 August 1917, 6.
- Oxford Journal Illustrated, 2 July 1919, 11.
How to cite this entry
Angela Bartie, Linda Fleming, Mark Freeman, Tom Hulme, Alex Hutton, Paul Readman, ‘Oxford Pageant of Victory’, The Redress of the Past, http://www.historicalpageants.ac.uk/pageants/1146/