Liverpool 700th Anniversary Pageant

Other names

  • Liverpool Pageant in Commemoration of the 700th Anniversary of the Granting of the Charter to the City by King John, 1207.

Pageant type

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Place: Wavertree Park (Liverpool) (Liverpool, Lancashire, England)

Year: 1907

Indoors/outdoors: Outdoors

Number of performances: 5


3–6 August 1907

The pageant was held on Saturday 3 August 1907 and Monday 5 August 1907 at 2.30pm and 6.30pm; then again on Tuesday 6 August 1907 at 6pm only.2

There was a full dress rehearsal on the evening of 2 August in front of an audience of 10000–12000, mostly made up of children. The performance had to be curtailed because of rain.3

Wavertree Park is a large recreation area opened in 1895; it is situated on land given to the city by an anonymous donor. Owing to this, Liverpudlians often called the park the 'mystery'. It later became known that the donor was Philip Holt whose family made their fortune in shipping.

Name of pageant master and other named staff

  • Pageant Master: De Ferrars, D'Arcy
  • Stage Manager: R.W. Lomax
  • Art Director: F.V. Burridge
  • Master of the Children's Drill: J.G. Legge
  • Master of the Cars: G.W. Harris
  • Master of Horse: T. Eaton Jones
  • Mistress of the Characters: Mrs Stephen Porter
  • Musical Director: Ralph H. Baker


The pageant had several upper class patrons called 'Presidents'; these were as follows:

  • The Right Hon. The Earl of Derby, KG, GVB
  • The Most Noble The Marquis of Salisbury
  • The Right Hon. The Earl of Sefton
  • The Right Hon. The Earl of Lathom
  • The Right Hon. Lord Stanley, KCVO, CB

Names of executive committee or equivalent

General Committee:

  • Chairman: The Right Hon. John Japp, Lord Mayor of Liverpool
  • Hon. Treasurers: Mr J.S. Harmood Banner, MP, and Mr J.H. Simpson
  • Hon. Secretaries: Mr E.R. Pickmere (Town Clerk) and Professor Ramsay Muir
  • Hon. Assistant Secretaries: Mr Percy F. Corkerhill and Mr H.A. Thew
  • Plus a large number of ordinary members

Pageant Committee:

  • Chairman: Mr F.J. Leslie
  • Deputy Chairman: Mr F.L. Joseph
  • Hon. Secretary: Mr P.F. Corkerhill
  • Plus 54 other ordinary members, all male and including eight pageant writers and thirteen composers of music

Historical Exhibition Committee:

  • Chairman: Mr H.E. Rensburg
  • Vice-Chairman: Mr Robert Gladstone, Jnr
  • Hon. Secretaries: Mr R.D. Radcliffe, Mr E.R. Dibdin and Mr H.A. Thew
  • Hon. Accountant: Mr S.S.Dawson
  • Plus 40 ordinary members, all men

Finance Committee:

  • Chairman: Alderman Louis S. Cohen
  • Deputy Chairman: Mr J.H. Clayton
  • Plus 5 ordinary members, all men

Advertising Committee:

  • Chairman: Alderman J.R. Grant
  • Deputy Chairman: Mr S.J. Henochsberg
  • Plus four ordinary members, all men

Artists' Committee:

  • Chairman: Mr R.E. Morrison
  • Hon. Secretary: Mr F.V. Burridge
  • Plus 11 ordinary members, all men

Auxiliary Finance Committee:

  • Chairman: Major Cooney
  • Deputy Chairman: Mr Robert Kirkland
  • Treasurer: Mr W. Rushworth
  • Hon. Secretary: Mr J. Grahame Reese
  • Plus 55 ordinary members, all men

Children's Celebrations Committee:

  • Chairman: Mr James G. Legge
  • Hon. Secetary: Mr Peter Smith
  • Plus 13 ordinary members, 11 men and 2 women

Ground Committee:

  • Chairman: Mr F.L. Joseph
  • Plus 9 ordinary members, all men

Medal Committee:

  • Chairman: Mr Robert Gladstone
  • Plus 3 ordinary members, all men

Music Committee:

  • Chairman: Dr A.L. Peace
  • Deputy Chairman: Mr F.H. Burstall
  • Hon. Secretary: Mr Ralph H. Baker
  • Hon. Conductor: Mr H.A. Branscombe
  • Hon. Bandmaster: Mr A.P. Crawley
  • Plus 22 ordinary members, all men

Traffic Committee:

  • Chairman: Alderman Fred Smith
  • Plus 9 ordinary members and 3 companies: Messrs Thos. Cook & Sons; Messrs Dean and Dawson; and Messrs John Frame & Co. (numbers of representatives from these unknown).

Ladies Committees (South, Central, East and North Districts):

  • Chairman of Executive: The Lady Mayoress (Miss Japp)
  • Hon. Secretary: Miss Conway
  • Lady Managers: Miss Cameron, Mrs Legge, Mrs Pickmere and Mrs R.S. Porter

South District Ladies' Committee:

  • Chairman: Lady Petrie
  • Hon. Secretaries: The Misses Hughes
  • Plus around 200 female ordinary members

Central District Ladies' Committee:

  • Chairman: Mrs Glynn
  • Hon. Secretaries: The Misses Glynn
  • Plus around 125 female ordinary members

East District Ladies' Committee:

  • Chairman: Mrs J.C. Ellison
  • Hon. Secretaries: Miss Tinne and Miss Ellison
  • Plus around 150 female ordinary members

North District Ladies' Committee:

  • Chairman: Mrs Caroe
  • Hon. Secretaries: Mrs John Gordon and Miss Dorothy Couper
  • Plus around 120 female ordinary members.


It has been asserted that the pageant master at Liverpool, D'Arcy De Ferrars, paved the way for Louis Napoleon Parker. He was an enthusiast for Morris dancing and had been working as an organiser of theatrical and dance performances for many years before modern historical pageants came onto the scene with the Sherborne pageant in 1905.8

The General Committee formed the executive of the pageant; it was made up of members of the Pageant, Historical Exhibition and Finance Committees and select other individuals. In the latter group were chairmen of, for example, the Shipbuilders' and Engineers' Association and the Shipowners' Association, chief reporters from a variety of local newspapers, presidents from many local trade associations, representatives from the armed forces, several bank managers, local councillors, MPs, judges and clergymen. In all, the committee had around 350 members: all appear to have been men.

The Ladies Committees had an executive with officers who oversaw four further sub-committees: the four were arranged by geographical area. Each of the four groups had its own chair and secretaries. Among the membership of the four area committees, married and single women are roughly evenly represented. In addition, each group had at least one member who was a nun: all were Sister Superiors at local girls' convent schools. Overall, around 600 women were involved with these organising committees.

The Children's Celebrations Committee was made up of employees in the city's education department and teachers from representative schools.9

Names of script-writer(s) and other credited author(s)


The narrative of this pageant was sung; lyric writers and their works were as follows:

  • William Watson wrote the lyrics to the 'Anniversary Ode'.
  • C.W. Bailey wrote the lyrics to the song 'The Vikings' Ship'.
  • John Garrett Leigh wrote the lyrics to 'The Song of the Charter' and 'An Invocation for Midsummer's Eve'.
  • Rev. J. Keating (S.J.) wrote the lyrics to 'The Chant of the Monks'.
  • Rev. C.C. Elcum, MA, wrote the lyrics to 'The Building of Liverpool Castle' and 'Prince Rupert and the Siege'.
  • Frank J. Leslie wrote the lyrics to 'Stanleys and Molyneuxs', and 'The Blue Coat Hospital'.
  • Rev. J.O. Coop, MA, wrote the lyrics to 'Age of War', and 'The Press Gang'.
  • Rev. Austin R. Taylor, MA, wrote the lyrics to 'Song of Liverpool'.
  • Arthur C. Benson, 'Land of Hope and Glory'.10

Names of composers

  • Peace, A.L.
  • Lyon, James
  • England, J.H.
  • Steinforth, R.
  • Branscombe, H.A.
  • Burstall, F.H.
  • Burge, Rev. T.A.
  • Driffield, E. Townshend
  • Elgar, Edward
  • Evans, Harry
  • Faulkes, William
  • Roberts, W.A.
  • Stammers, I. Herbert
  • Watson, Edward

Numbers of performers

4500 - 5000

Advertisements for the pageant stipulated 4500 performers, but newspaper reports sometimes mention up to 5000 taking part. Of these, 200 actors were on horseback. Donkeys were also involved, pulling one of the floats in the procession. Film footage of the pageant also reveals that a number of oxen pulled a float carrying performers dressed as monks. Among this total number were 2000 schoolchildren.

Financial information

Receipts from ticket sales for the pageant and exhibition: £6674

Subscriptions: £3254

Total expenses: £12907

Credit Balance: £36613

Object of any funds raised

The Corporation made a grant of £2000 towards the cost of the pageant.14 Income was also generated from other sources including the sale of pageant effects such as props, banner paintings and costumes. Costumes were sold at public auction, and it was noted in one report that many of these had been purchased by West African merchants who it was thought would be able to make a profit from natives by selling them some of the 'gaudy cloaks'.15 The pageant committee was also promised one third of the receipts from the tugboats used to ferry people out onto the river for a better view of the channel fleet when this was on display.16

Linked occasion

The pageant was held in honour of the 700th anniversary of the granting of a charter appointing Liverpool to the status of a free borough.

Audience information

  • Grandstand: Not Known
  • Grandstand capacity: n/a
  • Total audience: n/a


Precise figures for attendance have not been recovered, but this appears to have been high. It is possible as many as 150000 attended over the run of the event. 30000 spectators attended the first performance on Saturday.18 The stands were entirely filled at the performances on Monday and, it was said, could have been filled 'many times over'.19

Prices of admission and seats: highest–lowest

7s. 6d.1s.

Admission to the ground (standing only): 1s.

Unreserved seats: 2s. 6d.

Reserved grandstand tickets: 5s. or 7s. 6d.

Books of 1s. tickets: a book of 11 tickets cost 10s.; a book of 22 tickets cost £1.20

Associated events

A historical exhibition was held in the Walker Gallery in connection with the 700th anniversary (15 July–10 August 1907).
During pageant week the following events took place:
Saturday 3–Saturday 10 August 1907: 'Variety Entertainments' in several parks (Sefton Park, Wavertree Park, Lister Drive and Queen's Drive Walton).
Sunday: Public Thanksgiving Service (Sunday 4 August 1907, 3pm) in St George's Hall.
Monday: Display of Fireworks (Monday 5 August 1907, 9pm) in Sefton, Stanley and Newsham Parks.
Tuesday: Arrival in the Mersey of Channel Fleet of 14 Battleships (Tuesday 6 August 1907 in the morning). Admiral, Officers and 500 men of the fleet attended the pageant at 6 pm. Fleet Open to visitors.
Wednesday: 1000 Men of the Fleet March Through the Streets (Wednesday 7 August 1907, 5pm). This ended at St George's Hall where a dinner was given. Fleet Open to visitors.
Special Display of Fireworks at Pageant Ground at 9 pm; admission to the grandstand 6d.
Thursday: Fleet Open to visitors (8 August 1907).

Pageant outline

Singing of the Anniversary Ode

The pageant opened with singing of this ode.

Display of Physical Drill by Children

Each performance of the pageant was preceded by this display. In this, 2000 children arranged in ten 'companies' of 200 gave a performance of choreographed drill exercises. Each group of 200 contained four 'files' of fifty children: boys and girls were lined up in alternate files (two each of boys and girls). The children were dressed all in white but each company wore a different colored sash to distinguish the groups. The exercises began with various different kinds of coordinated marching. There were three further types of physical movements, which were displayed in succession and in a synchronized manner: first 'trunk-bending' and 'balance' movements, then 'vigorous lunging movements, and finally, 'marching at the double' as the children left the arena in their files 'four-abreast'.22

Historical Procession

This was a procession involving a number of pageant personnel, representations of historical figures and periods, a display of large and small banners and, in some instances, decorated 'cars' which transported a variety of performers dressed as historical figures. The cars were mostly horse drawn. Among the banners were some painted depictions of particular scenes featuring figures from history with local places as the background; the 'picture banners' were specially commissioned for the pageant. The order of the procession as was follows:

The Banner of Liverpool

A banner carrying the city's coat of arms was carried onto the pageant arena amid a small procession that included the pageant master, the chief marshal, two trumpeters, 'six small maidens holding streamers', a number of other attendants and the Liverpool Pageant Band. 'Liver Birds on Poles' were also part of this display.

Period I. Ancient Britons, Norsemen and Saxons

This part of the procession consisted of individuals in period dress carrying banners. Those included were: 'Three Bannerets' (borne by Druids); 'Two Century Trophies' dated at 800 AD; 'The Banner of Mercia'; 'Three Bannerets of Saxon Princes'; a 'Banneret of the Viking Invasion, with the Viking Emblem—the Raven'; and six 'Bannerets with Norse Symbols and Devices'. Behind these was a decorated float made to look like a Viking boat (designed by Mr J.H. McNair) in which were steersmen, spearmen and oarsmen; finally, Princess Elfleda rode on horseback lead by a Thane—she had five maidens attending her. The song 'The Vikings' Ship' accompanied the procession. The last banner in this part of the parade carried a picture of Runcorn Castle (said to have been built by Princess Elfleda).

Period II. Normans and Plantagenets

This was a very long part of the overall parade; once again it contained many individuals in period dress and a number of banners. Notable among these were King John, Henry de Ferrers (member of the Domesday commission) and Sir Roger de Poitou. There were many knights in full armour and a representation of monks from Birkenhead Priory. The procession included two 'cars': the first was decorated 'in Norman style' (designed by Mr G.W. Harris) and carried King John 'dressed as his effigy in Winchester Cathedral'; the second was designed in 'ecclesiastical style' by Mr P.F. Gethin and represented Birkenhead Priory. It carried the Abbot and the priory's founder, Hammond Massey, as well as acolytes, deacons, monks and pages. The parade ended with 20 monks on foot bearing fishing nets and oars. Among the many banners and trophies was the banner of King Henry III who granted a charter to Liverpool in 1229.

Period III. Days of the Barons

This commenced with a large picture banner showing the Everton Beacon said to have been built as a watchtower by Ranulph, Earl of Chester; a figure representing the Earl followed on horseback. Behind this came a 'Canopy' carrying Sir William de Ferrers and Lady Agnes de Ferrers, which was accompanied by the singing of 'The Building of the Castle'.23 In the rear of the canopy was a figure representing Earl Robert de Ferrers who inherited the overlordship of Liverpool but forfeited this for joining with de Montfort's rebellion. Edmund, first earl of Lancaster and the younger son of Henry III came next in the procession; accompanying them were two Liverpool Burgesses: Adam FitzRichard [sic] and Robert Pinklove. There followed a further picture banner carrying a painting of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, granting the use of Peat Moor to 'the poor people of Lancaster'. Behind this came King Edward II and a party of soldiers and courtiers: Edward was carried in a horse litter, recalling the legend that when he visited Liverpool in 1324 the roads were so bad that wheeled vehicles could not use them. A further picture banner showing the embarkation of troops at Liverpool on their way to assist with the invasion of Scotland in 1333 was followed by a final tableau comprising a captain and six archers accompanied by women and children; this party carried three 'bannerets' on which were images of archery devices.

Period IV. Early Days of Trade

Within this element of the parade there was a car (designed by Mr Charles S. Haworth) decorated to represent the Everstan Mill. This carried figures dressed as William Fitzadam (a miller who became Mayor of Liverpool). A banner showing the church of St Nicholas which Fitzadam had founded came next. Trade with various places, including the continent, Ireland and Wales. were then represented in a variety of banners and by figures dressed as foreign traders. A picture banner showing Liverpool Castle in 1360 was carried at the rear, and 'Liverpool Citizens' who carried 'bannerets' depicting aspects of trade such as the market, the watermill and the ferry followed this at the end.

Period V. Stanleys and Molyneuxs

The first two figures to appear in this section of the procession were John of Gaunt and his second wife, Constance of Castile, with their respective attendants; banners depicting their emblems were included. The Sheriff of Lancaster followed carrying Richard II's Charter for Liverpool which revoked previous restrictions on trade. Two 'century trophies' dated to 1400 AD and a collection of citizens came next. Riding on a 'Canopy' (designed by Mr F.V. Burridge) and next in the procession were Sir John Stanley and Lady Isabella Lathom. The canopy was decorated with the Stanley crest and borne by retainers of the family. Following this, yet another charter (granted by Henry V) was carried in by a sheriff accompanied by the Captain of the Liverpool Archers (said to be on their way to Agincourt). Notable figures towards the rear of this section were: Richard de Radcliffe, Ralph de Radcliffe, Sir Thomas Stanley and Sir Richard Molyneux. A description of the procession in the programme notes that Richard Molyneux was killed at the Battle of Blore Heath: his riderless horse was led by two pages at the end and accompanied by six monks with lanterns on staves and six men-at-arms carrying 'reversed weapons'.

Period VI. The Tudors

At the head of this parade were two 'century trophies' dated AD 1500 and six merchants' banners. A car came next (designed by Mr W.J. Medcalf) and decorated as a ship of the period with the arms of several Liverpool traders painted onto the main sails. The ship carried several of these traders as well as some locally notable individuals. John Leland (historian and librarian to Henry VIII) was represented on his visit to Liverpool in 1533 and came next in the procession; he was accompanied by Beefeaters. A succession of banners and another sheriff bearing the charter granted by Queen Mary in 1556 came next; near the end was a picture banner depicting a great storm at Liverpool in 1561. Finally, the city's Mayor (flanked by six citizens carrying picks and spades) carried on plans for Liverpool's new harbour.

Period VII. Midsummer's Eve Pageant in Elizabeth's Time

This section recalled the atmosphere of traditional revels that took place on midsummer's eve in Tudor times. The 'Band of the Liverpool Seamen's Orphanage' headed it. At the centre of this section was Queen Elizabeth, described as 'Lady of the Manor of Liverpool', accompanied by cavaliers and ladies as well as the Mayor of Liverpool who carried the Queen's charter confirming the rights of the grammar school. Tableaux preceding the Queen featured Torch Bearers, Water Bailiffs, 'the Keeper of the Common Warehouse, with keys', six maypoles held aloft by jesters and maidens holding each of the ribbons on the maypoles, and ships’ masters and sailors. A car followed these, which held 'the Rose Queen' and her entourage of 'small maidens and pages'; this group was covered by a flower-draped canopy which had been designed by two local women. John Ore, the first headmaster and 20 small boys, then represented the grammar school. A section called 'the players' perhaps meant to represent some sort of masque followed; the players consisted of characters from legend such as Jack-in-the-green, a dragon and a giant, as well Robin Hood and his usual band of Friar Tuck, Maid Marian and Little John. Just ahead of Queen Elizabeth in the procession were three celebrated local witches (Margaret Loy, Dorothy Bridge and Mother Demdike). In the wake of Queen Elizabeth were an assortment of forest workers, bailiffs, constables and the town musician (the Wait) who carried bagpipes. These were followed by Sir Francis Bacon, said to have been elected as 'Member for the Town in 1588'. Finally, at the end of this ceremonial queue of the procession, came the Mayor of the time, Thomas Bavand, who rode on horseback; Tudor bannerets carried by the Queen's retainers ended this part of the procession.

Period VIII. The Stuarts and the Civil War

Two 'century trophies AD 1600', two trumpeters, two heralds and the banner of Charles I headed this section in order to introduce the charter issued by Charles I. The scientist, Rev Jeremiah Horrox, who came from Toxteth, followed. Notable figures from the Civil Wars came next, such as royalist supporters James, 7th Earl of Derby, Charlotte, Countess of Derby, and Prince Rupert, who was depicted on a large picture banner during the siege of Liverpool, which he successfully led. A car followed with a tableau displayed of Prince Rupert accepting the keys of Liverpool from the Mayor (John Williamson); an entourage surrounded the two. A party of Roundheads and Puritans came next, then a banner depicting Charles II and a trophy depicting this monarch's charter. The final part of this section was the display of James II's charter, which was carried by Judge Jeffries.

Period IX. Wealth and Charity

A pair of century trophies announcing the year 1700 were at the head of this section; a large picture banner depicting the building of Liverpool's first dock followed this. Figures associated with this time such as the Mayor (Sir Thomas Johnson) and the engineer of the dock (Mr Steers) accompanied the banner. A float was in the wake of this, depicting the slave trade. This tableau is described in the programme as follows:

Seated on a throne, under a canopy of gold and brown, is a draped figure typifying ‘Wealth,’ holding in her left hand a golden cornucopia. She is supported on either side by the celebrated ‘slave captains,’ John Newton and John Crowe. The former commanded a slave ship while studying for the Ministry and was afterwards a highly respected Liverpool Divine. Behind her stands another famous slave trader, and at each end of the car is a group of slaves, while at the back is shown a slave driver. On each side of the Car are six slaves and a driver.

Charity came after this with a painted banner depicting the local Blue Coat Hospital founded in 1708 by Bryan Blundell. This part of the parade ended with a collection of characters associated with this charity and with the School for the Blind (founded by Edward Rushton) and accompanied by the 'Band of the Blue Coat Hospital in their original costume'. The 'Blue Coat Hospital Song' was sung as this section entered. At the end of the section was a cart drawn by six donkeys which carried Molly Bushell, the alleged inventor of Everton toffee; her cart was followed by children.

Period X. The Age of War

This part of the procession was meant to cover the period from 1759 until 1815 and to remind the audience of all those countries with which Britain had fought. Banners representing these countries were carried and the song 'The Age of War' was sung; the countries included the USA, France and Portugal. Various characters were represented, both from parts of the empire (including French Canadians and 'Red Indians') and from the British armed forces. Among the latter was Colonel John Bolton, a Liverpool merchant who formed his own regiment during the Napoleonic wars. Privateersmen (including Fortunatus Wright and William Hutchinson) and their flags came next. Finally, accompanied by the song 'The Press Gang', various aspects of this practice were represented by captured men, their weeping wives and children, as well as a press gang.

Period XI. The Age of Commerce and Industry

A large picture banner showing Liverpool's new exchange opened in 1754 was at the head of this section accompanied by performers in the roles of the building's architect and the merchants who gathered there. Trophies representing local trade and traders were carried in; these included watchmakers, ropemakers, shipbuilders, millers, potters, sugar, tobacco and cotton traders. Various forms of transport were next depicted, mostly through banners and beginning with canals: the engineer James Brindley was represented. Roads came next and a coach-and-four was included as well as two highwaymen. The section ended with banner paintings depicting the coming of the railways and the first steam ferry boat on the Mersey in 1817.

Period XII. ‘1907’

Two trumpeters, on horseback, headed the final section. Flags of all the 'foreign countries' with which Liverpool traded were carried on held by 'men representing these nationalities': this included Japan, China and Russia. A float named as 'the Car of Charity' came next on which were children from local charitable institutions and some nurses. The 'Flags of British Colonies and Dependencies' with which Liverpool traded came next, including the following: India, Australia, New Zealand, Cape Colony, West Indies, Transvaal, Natal, Orange River Colony, Canada and Newfoundland. Trophies representing the four parts of the United Kingdom came next; then at the end the 'Company of the Kings' Own Scottish Volunteer Battalion (the Liverpool Regiment), maidens strewing flowers and six youths carrying palms.

The Historical Scenes

Episode I. Granting of the Charter, AD 1207

In the first episode, King John and his courtiers met with the Steward of Derby; looking on were peasants and fishermen. A prayer was offered and the charter 'engrossed and sealed' and presented to the Steward. General rejoicing then took place among the people. A sung narrative—'The Song of the Charter'—accompanied the drama.

Episode II. Birkenhead Priory, AD 1276

This episode recalled the establishment of the priory; Baron Massey and his wife were seen bestowing the lands upon the Benedictines. Details of the ceremony have not been recovered, but it involved a procession by the prior and monks. The song 'the Chant of the Monks' accompanied the drama.

Episode III. The Stanleys and Molyneuxs, 15th Century

This scene was set in 'an open place in Liverpool'. Townsfolk and 'Molyneux Retainers' were seen in front of the castle as a dispute took place between them. The disagreement was caused by the behaviour of soldiers towards townswomen. Blows were struck, and a soldier stabbed one of the townsmen which gave rise to stones being thrown at the soldiers. The whole garrison responded attacking townspeople, and alarm bells were rung. The Stanley faction then appeared on the scene, and 'general melee' resulted. The fracas was stopped by the arrival of Richard de Radcliffe, the Sheriff, two Justices and a guard; the leaders of the fight were arrested. At this, the 'passing bell' was heard and a procession of monks were seen escorting the bier of Sir Richard Molyneux who had lately been killed at the Battle of Blore Heath. The townsfolk knelt and the military saluted the passing of the corpse. Friendship was restored 'in the presence of death', and all performers followed the funeral procession. The choir again sang the narrative.

Episode IV. Midsummer's Eve, AD 1580

The classic town fair was the subject of this scene. The townsfolk were seen enjoying themselves and bells clanged loudly. A shout went up that the Queen was coming, at which the Mayor and a variety of officials appeared. Elizabeth I, described here as the 'Lady of the Manor of Liverpool', then entered on horseback surrounded by a large retinue. The Mayor presented an address and the Queen gave a signal for revels to begin. The Rose Queen entered in her car, and revels then ensued, including a hobbyhorse combat, several types of dance (maypole and Morris dances included) and general merriment among the crowds. The scene was accompanied by the song 'An Invocation for Midsummer Eve'.

Episode V. The Surrender of Liverpool, AD 1644

The English Civil War was recalled in this episode, which was set near Liverpool Castle. In this, Prince Rupert won the town for the Royalist side from Roundheads led by Colonel Moore. Sounds of bombardment were in the background as the castle walls were scaled and the Roundhead garrison inside was forced to surrender. The scene ended with the Roundheads marching off defeated and the Royalist side cheering. The narrative 'Prince Rupert and the Siege' was sung.

Episode VI. Liverpool, AD 1907

This episode brought the pageant back to a processional and tableau mode. The 'Flags and Banners of Foreign Nations' returned to the arena, and amid this scene 'The Grand Car of Liverpool' was wheeled on. Atop this float was a high pedestal with several tiers; its appearance was as if it was made of marble. The tableau was described as the 'Apotheosis of Liverpool', and at its pinnacle was a female figure enthroned on a grand chair who was meant to represent the city. She carried a 'Liver Bird Sceptre' in one hand and an orb with a ship on it in the other hand. On her head was a 'Naval Crown' surrounded by laurel leaves. Below her on the pedestal were four further allegorical figures representing science (carrying a globe and compass), literature (a pen and book), art (palette, brushes and a model of a building) and music (pipes and a scroll). At the four corners of the car were further figures representing the trades and industries of Liverpool. At the front of the car was Britannia and in the rear 'Erin with harp'. The float was drawn by 'six horses in trappings of gold'. Mr A.H. Baxter designed the car in a 'classical style'. Sailors of the Liverpool shipping lines flanked the carriage on either side, each carrying the flags of their own lines; these included those of the famous White Star, Cunard, Pacific, and Anchor companies. A mounted escort of the Royal Field Artillery at the rear completed the procession.

Grande Finale

All the performers returned to the arena and formed 'in a beautiful scheme of colour'.24 At the centre of this arrangement was the Liverpool car. The choir and audience sang ‘Land of Hope and Glory’.

Key historical figures mentioned

  • John (1167–1216) king of England, and lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou
  • Sir Roger de Poitou (mid-1060s– c1140) Anglo–Norman magnate
  • Ferrers, Robert de, sixth earl of Derby (c.1239–1279) magnate and rebel
  • Edmund [called Edmund Crouchback], first earl of Lancaster and first earl of Leicester (1245–1296) prince
  • Edward II [Edward of Caernarfon] (1284–1327) king of England and lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine
  • John [John of Gaunt], duke of Aquitaine and duke of Lancaster, styled king of Castile and León (1340–1399) prince and steward of England
  • Stanley, Sir John (c.1350–1414) soldier and administrator
  • Stanley, Thomas, first Baron Stanley (1406–1459) magnate
  • Molyneux, Richard (d. 1459) landowner
  • Leland, John (c.1503–1552) poet and antiquary
  • Elizabeth I (1533–1603) queen of England and Ireland
  • Stanley, James, seventh earl of Derby (1607–1651) royalist army officer
  • Stanley [née de La Trémoille], Charlotte, countess of Derby (1599–1664) noblewoman and royalist heroine
  • Rupert, prince and count palatine of the Rhine and duke of Cumberland (1619–1682) royalist army and naval officer
  • Newton, John (1725–1807) slave trader and Church of England clergyman
  • Wright, Fortunatus (d. 1757) merchant and privateer
  • Hutchinson, William (1715–1801) mariner and writer on seamanship
  • Brindley, James (1716–1772) civil engineer
  • Horrocks [Horrox], Jeremiah (1618–1641) astronomer

Musical production

All music was performed live. There was a choir of 1000 voices; this was made up of members of 34 local choral societies, church choirs and amateur operatic societies. The conductor of the choir was H.A. Branscombe. The choir performed in both the procession and the pageant.

For the procession, several bands provided the music: The Liverpool Pageant Band;
8th (Scottish) V.B. The King's (Liverpool) Regiment; Liverpool Bluecoat Hospital; Liverpool Seaman's Orphan Institution.
In addition to other music, four marches were played during the historical procession:
A.L. Peace. 'Pageant March'.
James Lyon. 'March'.
J.H. England. 'March in B flat'.
R. Steinforth. 'March'.

The city's Police Band provided music for the pageant; its bandmaster was Mr A.P. Crawley. The Police Band was described as 'augmented', suggesting that other local musicians joined them. All words within this pageant were sung; the songs and their composers are as follows:
F.H. Burstall, FRCO. 'Anniversary Ode', and 'The Blue Coat Hospital’.
William Faulkes. 'The Vikings' Ship'.
Edward Watson, ARCO. 'The Song of the Charter' and 'An Invocation for Midsummer Eve'.
Rev. T.A. Burge, OSB. 'The Chant of the Monks'.
I. Herbert Stammers. 'The Building of Liverpool Castle' and 'Prince Rupert and the Siege'.
E. Townsend Driffield. 'Stanleys and Molyneuxs'.
Harry Evans, FRCO. 'Age of War'.
W.A. Roberts, ARCO. 'The Press Gang'.
H.A. Branscombe. 'Song to Liverpool'.
Sir Edward Elgar. 'Land of Hope and Glory'.

Newspaper coverage of pageant

Aberdeen Press and Journal
Burnley Express
Falkirk Herald
Hull Daily Mail
Leeds Mercury
Lancashire Evening Post
Lichfield Mercury
Liverpool Daily Post
Liverpool Mercury
London Daily News
Manchester Courier
Manchester Guardian
Nottingham Evening Post
The Graphic
The Scotsman
Yorkshire Post

Book of words

Liverpool's 700th Anniversary Celebrations: Words and Music, August 1907. Liverpool, 1907.

Much of this pageant was presented as tableaux. The spoken narrative took the form of a libretto, sung in verse; there does not appear to have been any monologue or dialogue.

Other primary published materials

  • 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907. Liverpool, 1907.
  • Pageant News: Official Organ of Liverpool's 700th Anniversary. Nos. 1–17. June–October 1907. Liverpool, 1907.

References in secondary literature

  • Angell, F.W. ‘The Liverpool Pageant and the Schoolchildren'. The Practical Teacher 28.3 (September, 1907): 122–124.
  • Belchem, John. Merseyside: Essays in Liverpool Exceptionalism. Liverpool, 2000. At 22–24.
  • Steele, Murray. 'Transmitting Ideas of Empire: Representations and Celebrations in Liverpool 1886–1953'. In The Empire in One City? Liverpool's Inconvenient Imperial Past, edited by Sherylynne Haggerty et al., 123–142. Manchester, 1908.
  • Vickers, Matthew. Civic Image and Civic Patriotism in Liverpool 1880-1914. Unpublished DPhil, University of Oxford, 2000.27

A Pathé film which reviews the history of Liverpool (?1957) contains some grainy film footage of the pageant (see archival holdings). This is available online.28

Archival holdings connected to pageant

  • The British Library:
  • Two copies of the pageant programme. Shelfmarks 10362.r.9 and W47/1379.
  • One copy of the Book of Words and Music. Music Collections. Shelfmark F.1670.
  • One copy of the Exhibition catalogue. Catalogue of the Historical Exhibition Held at the Walker Art Gallery, 15th July–10th August, 1907, in Connection with the Celebration of the 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool. Liverpool, 1907. Shelfmark 7958.g.55.
  • The National Library of Scotland:
  • A printed programme for the pageant procession; this appears to have been an early draft prepared for the use of the pageant committee rather than a published edition for sale and has no cover illustration. See Liverpool Pageant in Commemoration of the 700th Anniversary of the Granting of the Charter to the City by King John, 1207. NLS shelfmark: 6.45.
  • The North West Film Archive:
  • Holds film of the pageant originally made by Gaumont British Picture Corporation; this is 13 minutes 27 seconds in length. Record no: 5994.
  • The Liverpool Record Office and Archives:
  • A copy of the programme, copies of the songs, photographs, and examples of the publication Pageant News. Shelfmark: 394.5 SEV.

Sources used in preparation of pageant



In reviewing the Liverpool pageant, one contemporary news piece somewhat churlishly pointed out that Liverpool was 'a grimy city', though it also added that there might be 'romance under its grime'. It went on to state that this must be the 'romance of trade', for the city was hardly more than a fishing village until 200 years previously when transatlantic commerce had transformed it.29 Whatever the press might say, Liverpool decided in 1907 that it had a somewhat longer and perfectly valid history to tell, and it counted this as commencing with the granting of its first charter by King John in 1207. The seven-hundredth anniversary of this event was therefore the occasion for the first grand civic pageant to be held in the north of England, and it was done on a magnificent scale. Perhaps to compensate for the fact that the city did not have a long and detailed history that was easily amenable to dramatisation, the pageant had only six episodes; however, the performance of these was preceded by a grand pageant procession that must have been awesome to see.

But before both the procession and the historical scenes, the show commenced with a presentation that was not so much a celebration of the past as a flaunting of all the city had to offer for the future. This consisted of a choreographed gymnastics display involving 2000 children. In this, ten groups of 200 children, dressed all in white but with each group wearing different coloured sashes, performed various movements in unison, accompanied by music. Given that Liverpool's reputation for low and irregular wages, poor housing, disease, general poverty and early mortality was probably second only to Glasgow within the UK at this time (the city was regularly viewed as the crucible of urban and industrial despair), there can be no doubt of the significance of this particular display. Liverpool was sending a clear message that its human stock was of high quality and that the city still had a great future ahead of it. Although the turn of the century saw widespread interest in eugenicist ideas and in improving the nation's moral as well as physical health, it has been claimed that this particular display was the very first of its type in the UK. Certainly, it would not be the last.30 The children were described in one report as 'the fine fruit of painstaking rehearsal' who had won 'universal praise' for their efforts.31

Following this harbinger of future prosperity, the past was recalled with the entry into the arena, through a doorway fashioned as a facsimile of the medieval Liverpool Castle, of a huge historical procession. Described as involving 1500 people and one third of a mile in length, this was divided into twelve historical epochs that appeared in chronological order.32 Even if Liverpool could lay no claim to great antiquity, the city could still celebrate the record of its development as a trading place and its strategic importance for the nation's advancement as an imperial power. Amid a cavalcade of tableaux, displays of various charters granted and institutions founded were displayed in the form of banners and trophies held aloft. Many of these painted or embroidered items were specially commissioned for the pageant and showed nationally well-known figures within a Merseyside setting. The procession was clearly meant to connote the great royal progresses and pageants of long ago and associate these with the progress of the city of Liverpool. As with the royal processions of the past, the depiction of the city's advancement flaunted wealth and power alongside artistry. Although most of the participants in the parade were on foot, a sizeable number were moved on vehicles, which in some cases allowed for elements of tableau vivant to be performed. A Viking long boat was one such float; others were elaborately decorated facsimiles of ancient local landmarks such as Birkenhead Priory. The entire parade was accompanied by music and singing composed especially for the pageant. The procession ended in contemporary times with items displaying Liverpool's significance as a gateway to the world and as a mainstay of the empire.

The decision to have such a procession was a wise one, for the dramatisation of charters being granted could make for a dreary theatrical experience (and Liverpool had been granted quite a few in its time!). The various trophies and banners carried onto the arena signalled to spectators the progress of the centuries, and the songs sung while this took place directed the audience's attention to particular highlights of the epochs on display with great effectiveness. At intervals, well-known historical figures appeared such as King John and Elizabeth I; but so too did locally important characters who were often linked to the civic identity of the city—whether as mayors, philanthropists, engineers or architects of landmark buildings. Moreover, no subject seems to have been off limits: one float carried a depiction of the slave trade replete with slave drivers and the unambiguous message that this had played a part in the wealth of Liverpool. Another float that was intended to show the city's philanthropic side placed the contemporary residents of charitable institutions for children on display.33 The children were seen in the company of uniformed nurses, so it may be supposed that the youngsters had disabilities of some kind or were perhaps orphaned. While this might generously be seen as inclusive, a less indulgent view would condemn it as exploitative. Press reports do not appear to have dwelt on it. According to the Manchester Guardian, while the procession was crowded with almost too many sights for the viewer to follow them all in detail, the 'outstanding events' of history 'were well marked and self-explanatory'; and, overall, the procession, which took an hour to pass by, 'could hardly be surpassed for pageantry'.34

This huge and colourful display must indeed have been an imposing spectacle. Following the parade, the pageant's episodes were enacted. These were chosen from the tableaux that had formed part of the procession and so provided for a more elaborate telling of some of the most important aspects of the city's historical tale. For the most part, they conformed to Edwardian pageant traditions, but there were some noteworthy departures from this. For example, neither Druids nor Romans nor early Christians made an appearance in the dramas, this element of English history having been covered in the procession. Instead, the pageant stayed true to its anniversary function and began with the foundational moment encapsulated by King John's charter. The influence of Christianity was covered, however, with the founding of Birkenhead Priory as a Benedictine house. This institution had significant heritage value for Liverpool, being the oldest surviving structure in the district, albeit in ruins. Few details of the tableau have been recovered, but from those that have it is interesting to note that this seems to have been a display of ecclesiastical ritual. Royalty did visit the Priory, notably Edward I, but it seems that the authors of the pageant did not care to dwell on the 'Hammer of the Scots'. The lens of local history was again used in Episode III when a skirmish, described in one report as a 'frolicsome melee' between two of the significant families of the district, the Stanleys (overlords of the Isle of Mann) and the Molyneuxs, was depicted.35 The clear lesson of this tale was that death defeats us all; for the rivalry between the two was settled in this tale by the death at the Battle of Blore Heath (1459) of the leader of the Molyneux family. This plot device, however, successfully wove the story of local enmities into a larger national narrative through the signposting of a significant conflict in the Wars of the Roses. The next episode also conformed to customary pageant tropes through a depiction of Elizabeth I and all the revels of a midsummer fair. Interestingly, however, she was renamed in this fantastical scenario as the Lady of the Manor of Liverpool!

The remaining two episodes took this pageant in a different direction. In Episode V, the civil war was portrayed and a battle scene shown. This seminal moment in the past had clear symbolic importance within the approach to Liverpool's history taken by this pageant. For the struggle between Royalists and Roundheads that took place here did so because of Liverpool's significance on the trade and military route to Ireland. From the seventeenth century the pageant narrative then leapt forward to the present day. Though almost two centuries were simply glossed over, Episodes V and VI were in fact intimately linked. The thread that connected them, of course, was Liverpool's place as the gateway to the Atlantic. In the final episode, the pageant organisers simply gave up on re-enactment and returned to processional mode: for this was a story that was simply too big for any attempt at realism. Described as the 'apotheosis of Liverpool', Episode VI presented an extraordinary and extravagant tiered float to the audience. It was fashioned to look as if it was made of marble. Sitting towards the front of this structure was Britannia; but in centre place on the topmost pedestal, high above all, was the enthroned figure of Liverpool. Seated at the rear of the float was the figure of Erin. The car was flanked on all sides by the flags of nations and of the shipping lines that operated in the port. Guarding this moving monument were sailors and soldiers. The heavily laden symbolism on display hardly needs unpacking and would have been clear to the audience—the city presided over the empire, an entity that would not have become what it was had it not been for Liverpool. Beginning with its place as the entry and exit point between the mainland and Ireland, through to the contemporary traffic that went on daily between the UK and the rest of the world, Liverpool was at the heart of imperial and commercial growth.

In this pageant, there was no herald or similar figure to introduce the episodes; instead, a 1000-voice choir narrated the story in operatic style through song and accompanied by a live orchestra. With the notable exception of Elgar's ‘Land of Hope and Glory’, the music and lyrics were especially composed, and local writers and composers produced most of this material.36 It seems, indeed, that the entire pageant was sung. The size of this choir, made up of members of various operatic and religious-based singing societies, also indicated the vibrancy of cultural life in the city at this point. Indeed, while the explosion of the city during the nineteenth century may have left a legacy of social inequality, it is clear that Liverpool was far from being a literary and artistic wasteland. Great wealth had encouraged the growth of the arts, and the city could boast that it was home to the first ever dedicated school for art and design (founded in 1825) to be opened outside of London. The school was involved with the pageant, and its staff designed a number of the floats: the Viking float, for example, was the work of Scottish-born James Herbert McNair, who had been an associate of Rennie Mackintosh. In 1907, McNair was an instructor at the Liverpool art school.37 Inclusiveness was clearly important, and although this civic initiative had, as was usual in the period, a number of aristocratic patrons, an enormous array of organisations was involved and it was, as far as can be seen, non-sectarian in its scope. As a civic initiative, it had Liverpool's solidly business-orientated middle classes behind it, as well as its intellectual elite.

There can be no doubt that when Liverpool got on the pageant bandwagon at the height of its first phase of popularity, it aimed to outdo much that had gone before. No expense was spared on this venture in order to make it a success and a credit to Liverpool's civic status. At the first performance, mayors from 26 other municipalities were invited to lunch and to enjoy the pageant.38 The usual grand balls and associated civic pomp took place, yet caution was not sent to the winds. The event was insured for £6000 against bad weather.39 As it turned out, apart from the dress rehearsal, which had to be cut short because of heavy rain, the weather was good. Wavertree Park, where the pageant took place, was not noted for its sylvan beauty, but it was easy to get to by regular tramcar and large enough to accommodate the huge audiences that were needed for commercial success. Precise figures for total attendance have not been recovered, but this must have been in excess of 100000—possibly as many as 150000. The crowds were so large that no newspaper hazarded more than a guess. Those who paid to enter the ground could make even more of an occasion of it, for three enormous refreshment marquees were set up to cater for the spectators and the performers, serving, amongst other things, beer and wine. A license to serve spirits, however, was not granted by the city council's licensing board, and strict hours of service for alcohol were adhered to in order to ensure good behaviour.40

Nonetheless, the city successfully entered into a carnival spirit. The channel fleet steamed in to create a huge display of naval might in the harbour, and this proved to be another popular visitor attraction at the centenary celebrations, with 43000 people paying to sail out into the harbour to view the battleships. Pageant performers were also treated to a visit to the fleet, and two separate groups of 1000 were each invited onto the flagship during the navy's stay at Liverpool. 41 The pageant was, of course, the centrepiece of the centenary festivities, but the visit of the fleet was equally prestigious and a clear demonstration of national pride. The two events were further conjoined when the admiral, officers and 500 men of the fleet attended the pageant for its evening performance on the Tuesday. All of this underlined that the maritime commerce on which Liverpool's prestige and self-identity as second city of the empire depended, and which was celebrated in the pageant, was contingent on the strength of the navy.

Although much of the expertise applied by the likes of the art school tutors may have been provided free, the materials used to create the floats were extravagant and must have cost a considerable amount.42 Nevertheless, a small financial surplus was recorded, and there was sufficient confidence that the event would be recalled as a triumph for commemorative medals to be struck. In thanks for the great achievement made by the schoolchildren with their gymnastics display, medals were given to all 2000 who took part.43 The Liverpool pageant and others held in 1907 took pageantitis to new heights; when Liverpool's event concluded, its scale prompted commentary from Manchester Guardian, which stated that surely this fashion for pageants had now 'reached its zenith'. The editorial went on to state that 'the local pageant, as we know it so far, is a monster, draining the strength of its source at one gulp'; 'so much is undertaken', said the report,' that no one wants to do it again'.44 The Guardian could not have been more wrong in its predictions about the popularity of pageants for local communities.


  1. ^ See ‘Wavertree Playground (The Mystery)’, accessed 11 February 2016,
  2. ^ Advertisement, Burnley Express, 3 August 1907, 1 and elsewhere.
  3. ^ 'Liverpool Septenary', Manchester Courier, 3 August 1907, 6; 'The Liverpool Pageant', Manchester Guardian, 3 August 1907, 9.
  4. ^ 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), 11.
  5. ^ 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), 11.
  6. ^ 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), 11.
  7. ^ For names of committee members see 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), 5-14.
  8. ^ De Ferrars's career is discussed in Roy Judge, 'D'Arcy Ferris and the Bidford Morris', Folk Music Journal, 4 (1984), 443–480. See also Roy Judge, ‘Ferrars, Ernest Richard D'Arcy de (1855–1929)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, accessed 18 February 2016,
  9. ^ F.W. Angell, ‘The Liverpool Pageant and the Schoolchildren’, The Practical Teacher 28.3 (September, 1907), 122–124.
  10. ^ 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), 59.
  11. ^ See 'Shots of a Giant Pageant in Wavertree Park', from This in Our Time (?1957), accessed 16 February 2016,
  12. ^ 'Liverpool Septenary', Manchester Courier, 3 August 1907, 6.
  13. ^ 'Liverpool Pageant Profits', Yorkshire Post, 17 October 1907, 8.
  14. ^ Untitled article, Hull Daily Mail, 6 August 1907, 3.
  15. ^ Note (no title), Nottingham Evening Post, 11 October 1907, 5.
  16. ^ 'The Light Side of History', Leeds Mercury, 6 August 1907, 5.
  17. ^ See transcriptions by Richard Brooke from the Liverpool Weekly Mercury and the Sphere supplement, accessed 12 February 2016,
  18. ^ 'Liverpool Pageant', Lancashire Evening Post, 5 August 1907, 4.
  19. ^ 'The Pageant as Holiday Entertainment', Manchester Guardian, 6 August 1907, 4.
  20. ^ Advertisement, Burnley Express, 3 August 1907, 1 and elsewhere.
  21. ^ See 'Programme for Liverpool's 700th Anniversary Festival', 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), 16.
  22. ^ Description of the episodes is based on information stated in 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907 (Liverpool, 1907).
  23. ^ For the words of this song, see 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), 51.
  24. ^ 'Liverpool Pageant', Lichfield Mercury, 9 August 1907, 2.
  25. ^ The names of the societies and choir members who took part in the pageant are listed in Liverpool's 700th Anniversary Celebrations: Words and Music, August 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), np.
  26. ^ Liverpool's 700th Anniversary Celebrations: Words and Music, August 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), np.
  27. ^ Vickers sees the pageant as an exclusive social event that excluded most Liverpudlians and as a failure in commercial terms.
  28. ^ See 'Shots of a Giant Pageant in Wavertree Park', from This in Our Time (Pathé Film, ?1957), accessed 16 February 2016,
  29. ^ ‘The Romance of Liverpool: 700 Hundred year of Progress', The Graphic, 3 August 1907, 6.
  30. ^ This claim is made in Murray Steele, 'Transmitting Ideas of Empire: Representations and Celebrations in Liverpool 1886–1953', in The Empire in One City? Liverpool's Inconvenient Imperial Past, ed. Sherylynne Haggerty et al. (Manchester, 1908), 129.
  31. ^ 'The Pageant As Holiday Entertainment', Manchester Guardian, 6 August 1907, 4.
  32. ^ 'Liverpool's Pageant', Nottingham Evening Post, 5 August 1907, 3.
  33. ^ 700th Anniversary of the Foundation of Liverpool: Programme of the Pageant in Wavertree Park and Grounds August 3rd, 5th & 6th 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), 40.
  34. ^ 'Liverpool's Pageant: Living Pictures of the City's History', Manchester Guardian, 5 August 1907, 6.
  35. ^ 'The Pageant as Holiday Entertainment', Manchester Guardian, 6 August 1907, 4.
  36. ^ Liverpool's 700th Anniversary Celebrations: Words and Music, August 1907 (Liverpool, 1907), np.
  37. ^ For a short biography, see ‘James Herbert McNair’, accessed 18 February 2016,
  38. ^ 'Liverpool's 700th Birthday', Scotsman, 5 August 1907, 8.
  39. ^ 'The Light Side of History', Leeds Mercury, 6 August 1907, 5.
  40. ^ 'The Liverpool Pageant: Limited Drinking Facilities', Manchester Guardian, 31 July 1907, 7.
  41. ^ 'The Channel Fleet: Another Busy Day at Liverpool', Manchester Guardian, 9 August 1907, 7.
  42. ^ A record of any fee paid to the artists has not been recovered.
  43. ^ 'Liverpool Pageant Receipts', Manchester Courier, 12 August 1907, 7. Images of the medal are easily found online; see, for example, one held in the collections of the Royal Museums Greenwich, accessed 18 February 2016,
  44. ^ Editorial, The Guardian, 8 August 1907, 6.

How to cite this entry

Angela Bartie, Linda Fleming, Mark Freeman, Tom Hulme, Alex Hutton, Paul Readman, ‘Liverpool 700th Anniversary Pageant’, The Redress of the Past,